[24] When the reaction conditions are chosen to allow this reaction to occur in the gas phase throughout the tube volume, in contrast to earlier techniques where the reaction occurred only on the glass surface, this technique is called modified chemical vapor deposition. All splicing techniques involve the use of an enclosure into which the splice is placed for protection afterward. Even simple cleaving (breaking) of the ends of the fiber can provide nicely flat surfaces with acceptable optical quality. The Office of Adviser announced they would work on applications for rural broadband in collaboration with Ministries of Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, HRD, Health and the Prime Minister's National Council on Skill Development so that even as hardware connectivity is under progress, applications also get addressed. [1] Roll out will be expedited with November 2017 memorandum of understanding with seven more states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Telangana. [1][8][6], BharatNet will provide more employment opportunities, improved service delivery (online e-gram panchayat services, e-governance, e-education, e-health, e-medicine, e-grievances, e-agriculture, e-citizen, etc. [2], DoT will invest ₹107.43 billion (US$1.5 billion) on BharatNet in Northeast India by December 2018, including erecting 6,673 towers to connect 8,621 villages at the cost of ₹533.6 billion (US$7.5 billion) and additional 4,240 gram panchayats by satellite broadband connectivity by December 2018. It is both an enabler and a beneficiary of other key government schemes, such as Digital India, Make in India, the National e-Governance Plan, UMANG, Bharatmala, Sagarmala, the dedicated freight corridors, industrial corridors, and UDAN-RCS. Rigid fiber assemblies sometimes put light-absorbing ("dark") glass between the fibers, to prevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering another. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Out of these Reliance Jio has offered to deploy free Wi-Fi connectivity to 38,000 colleges, which has been supported by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) and the Department of Telecommunications (DoT). In practical fibers, the cladding is usually coated with a tough resin buffer layer, which may be further surrounded by a jacket layer, usually plastic. The main components of GPON technology are OLT, ONT/ONU, Splitters and Optical Fibre Cables. It was estimated to be completed by the end of 2013, but was revised to September 2015 by the UPA government. In a step-index multi-mode fiber, rays of light are guided along the fiber core by total internal reflection. Telecommunications Consultants India Limited, "Only ‘Made in India’ equipment for BharatNet: Govt. The doped fiber is optically pumped with a second laser wavelength that is coupled into the line in addition to the signal wave. The sine of this maximum angle is the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber. Optical fiber is an intrinsic part of the light-transmitting concrete building product, LiTraCon. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Another important feature of cable is cable withstanding against the horizontally applied force. [13] RailTel was awarded work for 8+ states and UTs, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Puducherry and Tripura. Sensors that vary the intensity of light are the simplest, since only a simple source and detector are required. "Bharat Broadband plans to hook up all 2.5 lakh panchayats by Dec-end", BSNL lays 11,005-km optical fibre cable in state, Indian Railways to equip all 8,500 stations with Wi-Fi, HRD ministry asks colleges to provide free Wi-Fi on campus, Forget Wi-Fi: This startup tech can power the Internet using light bulbs and is 100 times faster, DoT to spend Rs 10,743 cr to improve connectivity in NE, "National Optical Fibre Network Rollout: Centre's nod to some states going solo, bid to push rollout", http://indianexpress.com/article/technology/technology-others/pm-narendra-modi-to-review-national-optical-fibre-network-project-tomorrow/, "Broadband Connectivity to 250,000 Panchayats through National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN)", "Union Government Approved Project for National Optical Fibre Network Creation in gram panchayats", "Performance dashboard – Transforming India", "India's 'fantastic' broadband project that you should know about – Tech2", "Although Most Of The Wearable Technology Still Lie A Bit On The Expensive Side, Expectations Are Of A Large Increase In Number Of People Using Wearable Technology In India In The Coming Years - Electronics For You", http://www.bbnl.nic.in/content/page/technology.php, "United Telecom pips rivals ITI, Tejas, [https://www.stl.tech/ Sterlite], L&T with Rs 998 crore bid for BBNL contract", "List of Gram Panchayats where BBNL's fiber is available up to the Blocks from the GPs", Official live current overall summary status report, Official Phase-I status breakdown by state, Debasish Choudhury Vice President United Telecoms on BBNL GPON bid winning. It aimed at using existing fibre optical network of Central utilities - BSNL, RailTel and Power Grid - to provide internet connectivity to gram panchayats. Such fiber is called multi-mode fiber, from the electromagnetic analysis (see below). [2][5][6] The government has discounted the bulk BharatNet bandwidth rates to the commercial telecom operators by 76% to enable them to offer the highly discounted, affordable, competitive, and commercially viable BharatNet-enabled wireless cellular 4G broadband deals to the rural customers. The size of this acceptance cone is a function of the refractive index difference between the fiber's core and cladding. There’s a lot that goes into a fiber installation project. Teamwork and attention to detail is what makes a fiber optic installation successful! Then the splicer generates a larger spark that raises the temperature above the melting point of the glass, fusing the ends together permanently. Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. Attenuation is an important factor limiting the transmission of a digital signal across large distances. Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday launched the ‘Har Gaon Mein Optical Fibre’ project via video-conferencing while inaugurating a slew of infrastructure projects in Bihar. [13] Delhi is included with Phase-I BSNL work for Haryana. By using fibers, a spectrometer can be used to study objects that are too large to fit inside, or gasses, or reactions which occur in pressure vessels. The propagation of light through a multi-mode optical fiber. This is called diffuse reflection or scattering, and it is typically characterized by wide variety of reflection angles. The splice is usually inspected via a magnified viewing screen to check the cleaves before and after the splice. This same phenomenon is seen as one of the limiting factors in the transparency of IR missile domes. A spectrometer analyzes substances by bouncing light off of and through them. [2], Once all the gram panchayats have been connected by the dedicated fibre optical network, the last mile connectivity to all villages will be provided by the commercial telecom operators by expanding the current national network of 38,000 Wi-Fi hotspots to 700,000 Wi-Fi hotspots to cover all 625,000 villages in India. Thus, much research has gone into both limiting the attenuation and maximizing the amplification of the optical signal. NEW DELHI: As a first step in the direction of connecting more than 6 lakh villages in 1000 days, PM Modi on Monday launched a project in Bihar that seeks to connect 45,945 villages of BIhar with high-speed optical fibre internet service at a cost of Rs 640 crores… Universal Service Obligation Fund (DOT), BBNL, BSNL, Rail Tel, Power Grid and Telecom Players, USPs and content providers, along with State Governments, are working on the Pilot Trials. As on 10 January 2017, ten days past the deadline, only 27.55% GPs (gram panchayats) were covered as per the data from performance dashboard of the Government. A coherent bundle of fibers is used, sometimes along with lenses, … As per study by the ICRIER, every 10% increase in the usage of internet in India will add ₹4.5 trillion (equivalent to ₹5.1 trillion, US$71 billion or €66 billion in 2019) leading to a 3.3% increase in GDP of India, a number that will go up after the completion of Phase-II in March 2019. [5][6] The ₹450 billion (equivalent to ₹510 billion, US$7.1 billion or €6.6 billion in 2019) union government share of funding will come from the Universal Services Obligation Fund of the Department of Telecommunications. [10], BharatNet Phase-I, connecting 100,000 village councils covering 300,000 villages, was completed by December 2017. The process that causes the amplification is stimulated emission. To Test Passage of Light through Commercial/Industrial, è   Physics (Part 1&2) – Textbook for Class XII; National, Council of Educational Research and Training. [29], All the service providers like telecom service providers (TSPs), ISPs, cable TV operators, etc. Various categories of applications like e-health, e-education, and e-governance. The propagation of light through the core of an optical fiber is based on total internal reflection of the lightwave. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers. Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, and Puducherry. [14] To achieve this, Bharat Broadband Network was incorporated as a Special Purpose Vehicle(SPV) on 25 February 2012 under Companies Act of 1956. A laser bouncing down an acrylic rod, illustrating the total internal reflection of light in a multi-mode optical fiber. [17], The central government will set up sufficient Wi-Fi hotspots to cover 100 million citizens by 2020, and tender will be floated for this soon (as of November 2017). An outer secondary coating protects the primary coating against mechanical damage and acts as a barrier to lateral forces. From this information, a good rule of thumb is that signal using optical fiber for communication will travel at around 200 million meters per second. Remaining villages will be connected under Phase-II by December 2018. Both wavelengths of light are transmitted through the doped fiber, which transfers energy from the second pump wavelength to the signal wave. Collection of Scripts to analyse the district wise data of the progress. Fiber with a larger NA requires less precision to splice and work with than fiber with a smaller NA. Fiber optics, the science of transmitting data, voice, and images by the passage of light through thin, transparent fibers. This range of angles is called the acceptance cone of the fiber. Silica fiber also has high mechanical strength against both pulling and even bending, provided that the fiber is not too thick and that the surfaces have been well prepared during processing. The National Informatics Centre (NIC) was assigned a project by DOT/USOF for geographic information system (GIS) mapping of the existing OFC network of the various telecom operators such BSNL, Rail Tel, Power Grid, etc. Prysmian, in … Bendable fiber may also be resistant to fiber hacking, in which the signal in a fiber is surreptitiously monitored by bending the fiber and detecting the leakage. A high transparency in the 1.4-μm region is achieved by maintaining a low concentration of hydroxyl groups (OH). Wiretapping is more difficult compared to electrical connections, and there are concentric dual core fibers that are said to be tap-proof. Because the light must strike the boundary with an angle greater than the critical angle, only light that enters the fiber within a certain range of angles can travel down the fiber without leaking out. The results of such modeling of multi-mode fiber approximately agree with the predictions of geometric optics, if the fiber core is large enough to support more than a few modes. Both multi-mode and single-mode fibers are used in communications, with multi-mode fiber used mostly for short distances, up to 550 m (600 yards), and single-mode fiber used for longer distance links. This type of fiber can be bent with a radius as low as 7.5 mm without adverse impact. Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure strain, temperature, pressure and other quantities by modifying a fiber so that the quantity to be measured modulates the intensity, phase, polarization, wavelength or transit time of light in the fiber. Light reflected from optical fiber illuminates exhibited model. BharatNet Phase-I, across 13 states and UTs was completed in December 2017 with the Phase-I union government funding share of ₹110 billion (equivalent to ₹120 billion, US$1.7 billion or €1.6 billion in 2019). Optical fiber is an intrinsic part of the light-transmitting concrete building product, LiTraCon. Rays that meet the boundary at a low angle are refracted from the core into the cladding, and do not convey light and hence information along the fiber. In telecommunications, fiber optic technology is used to link computers within local area networks. In some applications, the sensor is itself an optical fiber. Multi-mode fibers generally have a larger core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. These fiber optic coating layers are applied during the fiber draw, at speeds approaching 100 kilometers per hour (60 mph). 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