The Sutra states that, "Her female organs vanished, the male organs became visible, then she appeared as a bodhisattva". Each step of the path is believed to cultivate wisdom through mental training, and includes an enlightened and peaceful middle path that avoids extremes. With clear knowledge, clear thinking follows suit. … [note 6] The Satipatthana Sutta is regarded by the Vipassana movement as the quintessential text on Buddhist meditation, taking cues from it on "bare attention" and the contemplation on the observed phenomena as dukkha, anatta and anicca. The Eightfold Path shows the way out of the cycle of birth and death, which is full of misery. The prohibition on killing precept in Buddhist scriptures applies to all living beings, states Christopher Gowans, not just human beings. The Buddha learned of the these truths when one … Question: "What is the Noble Eightfold Path?" The Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Noble Truths. The first two paths listed in the Eightfold Path, described below, refer to discernment; the last three belong to concentration; the middle three are related to virtue. We may ask ourselves before speaking or acting if we are moving toward freedom or pain. During the first teaching that Shakyamuni Buddha gave after his enlightenment, he presented the Four Noble Truths, the fourth being The Path to the Cessation of Suffering, called the Noble Eightfold Path. To follow the Noble Eightfold Path is a matter of practice rather than intellectual knowledge, but to apply the path correctly it has to be properly understood. Both the intention and the act matters, as this precept is grounded on the impact on one's karma. Wise Livelihood, or Wise Way of Life, is the fifth factor of the Noble Eightfold Path. In all of the elements of the Noble Eightfold Path, the word "right" is a translation of the word samyañc (Sanskrit) or sammā (Pāli), which denotes completion, togetherness, and coherence, and which can also carry the sense of "perfect" or "ideal".. We work to understand the presence of suffering in our lives, see the causes to our suffering, and the cessation of said suffering. Such harmony creates an environment to pursue the meditative steps in the Noble Eightfold Path by reducing social disorder, preventing inner conflict that result from transgressions, favoring future karma-triggered movement through better rebirths, and purifying the mind. The difference is that the latter have a one-pointed object in focus with complete awareness directed to that object – the meal or the target, respectively. [34] According to the Theravada commentarial tradition and the contemporary Vipassana movement, the goal in this group of the Noble Eightfold Path is to develop clarity and insight into the nature of reality – dukkha, anicca and anatta, discard negative states and dispel avidya (ignorance), ultimately attaining nirvana. 26, sutra 31 (分別聖諦經第十一)", "Madhyama Agama, Taisho Tripitaka Vol. [63], Like right view, this factor has two levels. [note 12] According to Gombrich, "the later tradition has falsified the jhana by classifying them as the quintessence of the concentrated, calming kind of meditation, ignoring the other – and indeed higher – element. If your mind is pure and calm, your wisdom will emerge. [93] The explanation is to be found in the Canonical texts of Buddhism, in several Suttas, such as the following in Saccavibhanga Sutta:[65][72]. It’s important to understand that mindfulness is not just being present. This virtue is further explained in Buddhist texts, states Vetter, as "living from begging, but not accepting everything and not possessing more than is strictly necessary". In Mahayana Buddhism, this path is contrasted with the Bodhisattva path, which is believed to go beyond Arhatship to full Buddhahood.[11]. [54][64] At the supramundane level, the factor includes a resolve to consider everything and everyone as impermanent, a source of suffering and without a Self. The Noble Eightfold Path is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering and the achievement of self-awakening. 1.1. [67][68] The Tathagata, states Abhaya Sutta, never speaks anything that is unfactual or factual, untrue or true, disagreeable or agreeable, if that is unbeneficial and unconnected to his goals. "And what is the right livelihood with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in acquisitions? The eight concepts contained in the Noble Eightfold Path are the attitudes and behaviors that Buddhists strive to emulate as a means of living out the Four Noble Truths.These eight concepts fall into three major categories: Wisdom, Conduct, and Concentration. [106][107] This issue of presumptions about the "female religious experience" is found in Indian texts, in translations into non-Indian languages, and in regional non-Indian commentaries written in East Asian kingdoms such as those in China, Japan and southeast Asia. 'There is what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed. [104][105], According to Bernard Faure, the ancient and medieval Buddhist texts and traditions, like other religions, were almost always unfavorable or discriminatory against women, in terms of their ability to pursue Noble Eightfold Path, attain Buddhahood and nirvana. Wise View means understanding and knowing these characteristics. By day and by night I acted to please. We train ourselves to not cause any harm with our deeds. [76] For lay Buddhists, states Harvey, this precept requires that the livelihood avoid causing suffering to sentient beings by cheating them, or harming or killing them in any way. The Truth of Suffering (Dukkha) The Buddha realised that this world if full of suffering (dukkha). However, we set the intention to understand the nature of experience, seeing that these experiences don’t keep us happy or satisfied forever. Gethin, Rupert, Sayings of the Buddha: New Translations from the Pali Nikayas (Oxford World's Classics), 2008, p. 142. In the Fourth Noble Truth, the Buddha offers a prescription or path for ending the suffering. It is the way to be free from defilement and suffering. Abstaining from killing, abstaining from stealing, abstaining from sexual misconduct. When the mind wanders during concentration practice, it is mindfulness that helps us know the mind has wandered and remember to bring it back. There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones abandons wrong livelihood and maintains his life with right livelihood. Being resolved on renunciation, on freedom from ill will, on harmlessness: This is called right resolve. We must recognize what is occurring in our present-time experience, and if it is leading to suffering or liberation. [54], The purpose of right view is to clear one's path from confusion, misunderstanding, and deluded thinking. We do experience happiness, moments of satisfaction. However, these two factors are a foundation for the other factors o the path, and they can help lead to the development of other factors. For example, cultivating Wise Concentration takes some mindfulness. The Third Mark of Existence is dukkha, or unsatisfactoriness. In this pithy talk, he taught three pivotal things: The Middle Way, the Four Noble Truths, and the Noble Eightfold Path. Knowledge is an accumulation of historical and experimental facts, which is mainly obtained through studying. Comparison between Christianity and Buddhism can be done using the principles of the Eightfold Path: Right Understanding - "Therefore do not be foolish, but understand what the Lord's will is" (Ephesians 5:17). One of the teachings here is to not profit off of the suffering of other sentient beings. This moral virtue in early Buddhist texts, both in context of harm or killing of animals and human beings, is similar to ahimsa precepts found in the texts particularly of Jainism as well as of Hinduism,[74][75] and has been a subject of significant debate in various Buddhist traditions. Introduction. All eight elements of the Path begin with the word "right", which translates the word samyañc (in Sanskrit) or sammā (in Pāli). It is healthy to enjoy these moments (recognizing their impermanence). The first three Truths point to the dukkha, or dis-ease that we experience in our lives. The Eightfold Path of Buddhism is the means by which enlightenment may be realized. There are Three Universal Truths – Annica (Impremanence), Dukka (Suffering) and Anatta (No Self).These three laws or truths not only explains human predicaments but also the world and the universe around us. The Noble Truths are the belief and the eightfold path is the action(s) that follows from the belief. The Pali term ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga (Sanskrit: āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is typically translated in English as "Noble Eightfold Path". We have a limited amount of energy each day. "And what is the right livelihood that is noble, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path? All … Furthermore, the eight factors of the Noble Eightfold Path are woven intricately together. These factors are not always cut-and-dry; at times they are not eight separate factors. In practicing Wise Effort, we take a look at how we are spending our energy, specifically if we are using our energy to encourage freedom and not suffering. This means developing understanding of the Four Establishments of Mindfulness. There are many ways that this intention to free ourselves and others from suffering may manifest. [117] Such statements are not isolated, but common, such as in section II.13 of the Petavatthu which teaches that a woman had to "put away the thoughts of a woman" as she pursued the Path and this merit obtained her a better rebirth; the Jataka stories of the Pali Canon have numerous such stories, as do the Chinese Sutta that assert "undesirability of womanhood". [citation needed] In the suttas, samadhi is defined as one-pointedness of mind (Cittass'ekaggatā). In Buddhism, the Noble Eightfold Path (Pali: ariya atthangika magga) is the path to the end of suffering.It is the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths.It can be summed up in three categories: wisdom (), virtue (), and concentration ().It asks for the Right view and the right intention, as well as other things. The Noble Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Four Noble Truths in Buddhism. When we practice Wise Intention, we often find that our speech becomes more helpful and kind. III. The Noble Eight-fold Path in Theravada Buddhism. Right livelihood (samyag-ājīva / sammā-ājīva) precept is mentioned in many early Buddhist texts, such as the Mahācattārīsaka Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya as follows:[45]. The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya 'ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuɣtan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in the teachings of the Buddha, declared to be the way that leads to the end of dukkha, or suffering. (...) Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. There are an infinite number of causes and conditions for this to be occurring. Right View / Right Understanding / Right Perspective / Perfect View 2. (...), The early canonical texts state right livelihood as avoiding and abstaining from wrong livelihood. 3. He arouses his will, puts forth effort, generates energy, exerts his mind, and strives to maintain wholesome mental states that have already arisen, to keep them free of delusion, to develop, increase, cultivate, and perfect them. Any singleness of mind equipped with these seven factors – right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness – is called noble right concentration with its supports and requisite conditions.|Maha-cattarisaka Sutta, According to the discourses, right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness are used as the support and requisite conditions for the practice of right concentration. [68][70] Additionally, adds Abhaya Sutta, the Tathagata, only speaks with a sense of proper time even when what he speaks is the factual, the true, the agreeable, the endearing and what is beneficial to his goals. [117] Modern Buddhist nuns have applied Buddhist doctrines such as Pratītyasamutpāda to explain their disagreement with women's inferior karma in past lives as implied in Samyutta Nikaya 13, states Wei-Yi Cheng, while asserting that the Path can be practiced by either gender and "both men and women can become arhant". Maybe we have regretted something for years or decades and it feels permanent. [17] The Buddhist texts contrast samma with its opposite miccha. [72][94], Bronkhorst has questioned the historicity and chronology of the description of the four jhanas. He arouses his will... and strives to eliminate evil and unwholesome mental states that have already arisen. Prajna is rega… The Five Precepts for lay practitioners are a set of guidelines to follow related to Wise Action. [78][79][80] Later Buddhist texts, states Bhikkhu Bodhi, state that the prohibition on sexual conduct for lay Buddhists includes any sexual involvement with someone married, a girl or woman protected by her parents or relatives, and someone prohibited by dhamma conventions (such as relatives, nuns and others). The Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Noble Truths. [30][81] The same text, in section V.177, asserts that this applies to lay Buddhists. The teaching of the Eightfold Path challenges us to grasp the implications of that vision, and asks us to transform ourselves in its light. Ill will that must be eliminated by effort includes any form of aversion including hatred, anger, resentment towards anything or anyone. For other uses, see. The Five Precepts creates a safe environment for people to live, practice, and engage with each other. This includes indriya-samvara, "guarding the sense-doors", restraint of the sense faculties. Finally, we investigate timeliness. The Fourth Noble truth charts the method for attaining the end of suffering, known to Buddhists as the Noble Eightfold Path. Yet, in pre-sectarian Buddhism, the establishment of mindfulness was placed before the practice of the jhanas, and associated with the abandonment of the five hindrances and the entry into the first jhana. Moral value, meditation, and wisdom. The Eightfold Path usually is presented as a list of things that are "right"—Right View, Right Intention, and so on. The Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Buddha's Noble Truths, and he described it as the way that leads to the uprooting of the causes of suffering, and thus to increasingly stable and profound peacefulness, wisdom, virtue, and happiness. Bronkhorst states that this path may be similar to what the Buddha taught, but the details and the form of the description of the jhanas in particular, and possibly other factors, is likely the work of later scholasticism. Carter, John Ross and Palihawadana, Mahinda; tr. The path to cessation. This is called right concentration. "[66] Similarly, the virtue of abstaining from divisive speech is explained as delighting in creating concord. [55] In the interpretation of some Buddhist movements, state Religion Studies scholar George Chryssides and author Margaret Wilkins, right view is non-view: as the enlightened become aware that nothing can be expressed in fixed conceptual terms and rigid, dogmatic clinging to concepts is discarded. The most important way we work with Wise View is through understanding of the Three Marks of Existence. 1, No. I followed that path. Nevertheless, females are seen as polluted with menstruation, sexual intercourse, death and childbirth. (1991). It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena (or reality) and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion. [114] Peter Harvey lists many Sutras that suggest "having faded out the mind-set of a woman and developed the mind-set of a man, he was born in his present male form", and who then proceeds to follow the Path and became an Arahant. I followed that path. It is called noble because when all of its factors come together in a fully developed form, they stand on the threshold to stream-entry, the first of the noble or transcendent attainments. [112], Gender discrimination worsened during the medieval era in various sub-traditions of Buddhism that independently developed regionally, such as in Japan. The formula is repeated in other sutras, for example the, Gethin: "The sutta is often read today as describing a pure form of insight (. I take refuge in the Buddha (awakened one) I take refuge in the Dharma (teaching) Looking at speech to see if it is beneficial is essentially looking at the possible effect of our speech. The way it manifests changes. The term samadhi derives from the root sam-a-dha, which means 'to collect' or 'bring together',[citation needed] and thus it is often translated as 'concentration' or 'unification of mind'. These are three factors related to formal meditation practice. In practical terms, wisdom comes at the end of one's practice of the path. Answer: The Noble Eightfold Path is the foundation of Buddhist practice. These effluents are sensuality, becoming, and ignorance. [11] In the Theravada tradition, this path is also summarized as sila (morality), samadhi (meditation) and prajna (insight). How to Cultivate the Noble Eightfold Path starting with Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta Anicca, dukkha, anatta describe the true nature of this world with 31 realms. [91] Buddhagosa defines samadhi as "the centering of consciousness and consciousness concomitants evenly and rightly on a single object...the state in virtue of which consciousness and its concomitants remain evenly and rightly on a single object, undistracted and unscattered."[92]. Ideal for KS3 this lesson explores the concept of The Noble Eightfold Path. This translation is a convention started by the early translators of Buddhist texts into English, just like ariya sacca is translated as Four Noble Truths. [84] While originally, in Yogic practice, sati may have meant The Fourth Noble truth charts the method for attaining the end of suffering, known to Buddhists as the Noble Eightfold Path. Having this type of view will bring merit and will support the favourable rebirth of the sentient being in the realm of, Supramundane (world-transcending) right view, the understanding of karma and rebirth, as implicated in the, the altered states of mind to which this practice leads (. First, these factors don’t necessarily need to be developed in order. The prohibition on stealing in the Pali Canon is an abstention from intentionally taking what is not voluntarily offered by the person to whom that property belongs. The final Noble Truth is the Buddha’s prescription for the end of suffering. Having established the reality, cause, and end of suffering, in the final [i] Here, the monk, detached from sense-desires, detached from unwholesome states, enters and remains in the first jhana (level of concentration, Sanskrit: dhyāna), in which there is applied and sustained thinking, together with joy and pleasure born of detachment; Wise Action may seem like a broad category, but it really can be simplified into following the Buddhist Precepts. [5] Tilmann Vetter and historian Rod Bucknell both note that longer descriptions of "the path" can be found in the early texts, which can be condensed into the eightfold path. [106] In the Huangshinu dui Jingang (Woman Huang explicates the Diamond Sutra), a woman admonishes her husband about he slaughtering animals, who attacks her gender and her past karma, due to the belief that women are further from enlightenment as the common man is further from enlightenment to a monk, or an ant to a mouse. This includes, states Bhikkhu Bodhi, taking by stealth, by force, by fraud or by deceit. [52][25][26][27] Majjhima Nikaya 117, Mahācattārīsaka Sutta, a text from the Pāli Canon, describes the first seven practices as requisites of right samadhi, starting with right view: Of those, right view is the forerunner [...] And what is the right view with effluents, siding with merit, resulting in acquisitions? lesome businesses cause harm to both ourselves and other living beings. In the vipassana movement, mindfulness (samyak-smṛti / sammā-sati) is interpreted as "bare attention": never be absent minded, being conscious of what one is doing. Samadhi (samyak-samādhi / sammā-samādhi) is a common practice in Indian religions. The idea of not-self is simply that nothing exists independently of other phenomena, and many things we perceive are actually processes. The Three Marks of Existence or the Three Characteristics are three qualities that all conditioned phenomena share in common. [115] Among Mahayana texts, there is a sutra dedicated to the concept of how a person might be born as a woman. [45][53], Later on, right view came to explicitly include karma and rebirth, and the importance of the Four Noble Truths, when "insight" became central to Buddhist soteriology. Prajna: Discernment, insight, wisdom, enlightenment. Gombrich and Wynne note that, while the second jhana denotes a state of absorption, in the third and fourth jhana one comes out of this absorption, being mindfully awareness of objects while being indifferent to it. This of course happens very quickly and most often unconsciously, but it is easy to see how all of our experience is a process. [66] For example, Samaññaphala Sutta states that a part of a monk's virtue is that "he abstains from false speech. The practice of dhyana reinforces these developments, leading to upekkha (equanimity) and mindfulness. In his very first sermon, delivered over 2,500 years ago, Shakyamuni Buddha taught the Noble Eightfold Path.In this episode I describe this teaching and each of the eight aspects of the path. He considered it an essential part of his philosophy, the legacy that he wanted to leave behind for all … There is dukkha. The virtue of abstaining from idle chatter is explained as speaking what is connected with the Dhamma goal of his liberation. An outstanding aspect of the Buddha's Teaching is the adoption of the Eightfold Path is the Middle Path.The Buddha advised His followers to follow this Path so as to avoid the extremes of sensual pleasures and self-mortification. There is this world and the next world. By Thich Nhat Hanh The Noble Eightfold Path is made up of Right View, Right Speech, Right Livelihood, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration, Right Thought, Right Action and Right Effort. Right Understanding (Sammā diṭṭhi) 2. The Five Precepts, in their simplest form, are to abstain from: taking life (or harming other living beings), taking that which is not freely offered, sexual misconduct, false speech, and ingesting intoxicating substances which lead to heedlessness. Wise Speech is the first factor that falls under ethics in the Noble Eightfold Path. Also a woman's body even then has five obstacles. We establish mindfulness in the body, establish mindfulness in the feeling tone of experience, establish mindfulness in the mental states, and establish mindfulness of the dhammas. We work to understand the presence of suffering in o… Pranja translates to wisdom. Although the planet has been around for quite some time, it doesn’t stay stable; it is always changing slightly. Of old (...). This is because the experience both lacks an inherent self and is impermanent. [66][54], In the Abhaya-raja-kumara Sutta, the Buddha explains the virtue of right speech in different scenarios, based on its truth value, utility value and emotive content. quote|The Blessed One said: "Now what, monks, is noble right concentration with its supports and requisite conditions? Each factor has its own set of practices and various methods of cultivation. Buddhistsstrive to follow the Noble Eightfold Path in the categories of Wisdom, Conduct (Ethical), and Concentration. Sometimes we act our way into wisdom. To put it simply, the Noble Eightfold Path is the method for cultivating Buddhahood. It is ancient, reaching back to the Buddha's very first discourse, and it is highly venerated as a unique treasury of wisdom and practical guidance. In fact, it is almost impossible to develop them perfectly in order. In contrast, right concentration meditative factor in Buddhism is a state of awareness without any object or subject, and ultimately unto nothingness and emptiness. We may also check in with our intention. Further, adds Bodhi, this precept refers to intentional killing, as well as any form of intentional harming or torturing any sentient being. [48], The Noble Eightfold Path, in the Buddhist traditions, is the direct means to nirvana and brings a release from the cycle of life and death in the realms of samsara.[49][50]. Right resolve (samyak-saṃkalpa / sammā-saṅkappa) can also be known as "right thought", "right intention", "right aspiration", or "right motivation". The final of the eight factors is Wise Concentration. At the mundane level, the resolve includes being harmless (ahimsa) and refraining from ill will (avyabadha) to any being, as this accrues karma and leads to rebirth. This Middle Path is generally referred to as the Noble Eightfold Path (Ariya-Aṭṭhaṅgika-Magga), because it is composed of eight categories or divisions: namely, 1. Right Thoughts. The Second Mark of Existence is not-self, which is surrounded by a lot of confusion and misconceptions. It doesn’t mean we deny that we are here. The Noble Eightfold Path (Pali: ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga; Sanskrit: āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth. Right action (samyak-karmānta / sammā-kammanta) is like right speech, expressed as abstentions but in terms of bodily action. [22][note 10]. Thus the two principles pene-trate and include one another, the formula of the Four Noble Truths containing the Eightfold Path and the Noble Eightfold Path containing the Four Truths. Right Understanding is to see a thing as it really is, not just part of it nor its surface. The Buddha responds to this assumption by teaching the method of moral development through which a woman can achieve rebirth as a man.[116]. Mundane and supramundane right view involve accepting the following doctrines of Buddhism:[59][60]. They are qualities we develop related to understanding and seeing clearly. The Four Noble Truths are a foundational Buddhist teaching, outlining the suffering we experience and how to work toward the cessation of suffering. Right Speech: no lying, no rude speech, no telling one person what another says about him to cause discord or harm their relationship. The Buddha taught it to his first disciples and to his last [§240], as well as to the majority of those in between. The dhyāna-scheme describes mindfulness also as appearing in the third and fourth dhyana, after initial concentration of the mind. [33] According to Trainor, mindfulness aids one not to crave and cling to any transitory state or thing, by complete and constant awareness of phenomena as impermanent, suffering and without self. That is, these are extremely important teachings in Buddhism. 4 (Dec. 1999), p. 860. Such examples, states Wei-Yi Cheng, include conflating statements about spiritual practice (Eightfold Path, Dhamma) and "obedience to my husband" and "by day and by night I acted to please", thus implying unquestioned obedience of male authority and female subjugation. Right speech: Avoiding […] [95], Although often translated as "concentration", as in the limiting of the attention of the mind on one object, in the fourth dhyana "equanimity and mindfulness remain",[97] and the practice of concentration-meditation may well have been incorporated from non-Buddhist traditions. 1. By Dr Ari Ubeysekara. THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS [117] For example, a goddess reborn in the heavenly realm asserts: When I was born a human being among men I was a daughter-in-law in a wealthy family. Is the intention for speaking wholesome? Although we may love somebody dearly, the quality changes. The Noble Eightfold Path is made up of eight factors broken down into three sections: Paññā (wisdom), Sīla (ethics), and Samādhi (concentration). The goal here is the end of suffering, and the path leading to it is the Noble Eightfold Path with its eight factors: right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are contemplatives and brahmans who faring rightly and practicing rightly, proclaim this world and the next after having directly known and realized it for themselves.' Wisdom is different from knowledge. There is cessation of dukkha. Many people confuse concentration and mindfulness, not realizing the differences between the two. "And what is right livelihood? The eight concepts contained in the Noble Eightfold Path are the attitudes and behaviors that Buddhists strive to emulate as a means of living out the Four Noble Truths.These eight concepts fall into three major categories: Wisdom, Conduct, and Concentration. Factor a little more deeply, both through study and especially by looking at the of! `` samadhi '' ) of the right livelihood with effluents, siding with merit resulting... Taisho Vol 2, p. 80 '', `` Madhyama Agama, Taisho Tripitaka Vol similarly the... Discernment, insight, wisdom, enlightenment at speech to see a thing as it really be. Of our speech the differences between the two down into an eight-step list of dos and don'ts, known as... Buddhist traditions consider sensual thoughts and ill will that must be eliminated by effort includes anything to! 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